By Årstein Justnes
[first version was published 19 August 2016]
Biondi, Lee. From the Dead Sea Scrolls to the Forbidden Book: A History of the Bible. Dallas.
[“Genesis Commentary”/“Genesis Midrash” = Words from Genesis 22, no DSS F.–number; “Isaiah 26:19–21” = Isa 26:19–27:1, no DSS F.–number]
Biondi, Lee. The Dead Sea Scrolls to the Bible in America: A Brief History of the Bible From Antiquity to Modern America: Told Through Ancient Manuscripts and Early European and American Printed Bibles. Biblical Arts of Arizona.
[“A Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Exodus” = Exod 5:9–14, DSS F.104; “A Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Exodus” = Exod 17:5–6, DSS F.192; “Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Psalm 11” = Ps 11:1–4, DSS F.199; “Fragment from the Dead Sea Scroll Wisdom Text 4Q418 (4QInstruction)” = Fragment with words from Instruction (4Q418) ii 4–5, DSS F.202]
Eshel, Esther, and Hanan Eshel. “A New Fragment of the Book of the Watchers from Qumran (XQpapEnoch).” Tarbiz 73: 171–79 [Hebrew]; V [English Abstract].
[ = 1En. 8:4–9:3, DSS F.125]
Noah, William H. Ink & Blood. Murfreesboro: ACO, LLC.
[“Dead Sea Scroll Fragment from Genesis” = Words from Genesis 22, no DSS F.–number; “Dead Sea Scroll Fragment from Isaiah” = Isa 24:16–17, no DSS F.-number; “Dead Sea Scroll Fragment from Isaiah” = Isa 26:19–27:1, no DSS F.–number; “Dead Sea Scroll Fragment from Jeremiah” = Jer 48:29–31, DSS F.156]
Eshel, Esther, and Hanan Eshel. “New Fragments from Qumran: 4QGenf, 4QIsab, 4Q226, 8QGen, and XQpapEnoch.” DSD 12: 134–57.
[“4QGenf (4Q6) frg. 1a 1–3” = Gen 33:19–34:2, no DSS F.-number; “4QIsab (4Q56) frg. 16a 1–2” = Isa 24:16–17, no DSS F.-number; “4QIsab (4Q56) frg. 20a 1–5” = Isa 26:19–27:1, no DSS F.-number; “4Q226 frg. 6a 1–4” = Words from Genesis 22, no DSS F.–number; “8QGen (8Q1) frg. 1a 1–3” = Gen 13:1–3, no DSS F.-number; XQpapEnoch = 1En. 8:4–9:3, DSS F.125]
Parry, Donald, and Emanuel Tov, eds. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader: Part 3: Parabiblical Texts. Leiden: Brill, 114.
[4Q226 frg. 6a? = Words from Genesis 22, no DSS F.–number]
Schutten, Henk. Het Judas-evangelie: Wat joden, christenen en moslims niet mogen weten [The Gospel of Judas: What Jews, Christians, and Muslims Should Not Know]. Amsterdam: Monitor, 2006. See esp. pp. 99–105.
Eshel, Hanan, Yosi Baruchi, and Roi Porat. “Fragments of a Leviticus Scroll (ArugLev) Found in the Judean Desert in 2004.” DSD 13: 55–60.
[“frg. a” = Lev 23:38–39, no DSS F.–number; “frgs b-c” = Lev 23:40–44, 24:16–19, no DSS F.–number]
Hallermayer, Michaela, and Torleif Elgvin. “Schøyen ms. 5234: Ein neues Tobit-Fragment vom Toten Meer.” RevQ 22/87: 451–61.
[= Tob 14:3–4, DSS F.123]
Eshel, Esther, and Hanan Eshel. “A Preliminary Report on Seven New Fragments from Qumran.” Meghillot 5–6: 271–78.
[“4QExodc (4Q14) frg. 1a 1–3” = Exod 3:14–15, DSS F.113; “4QExodc (4Q14) frg. 1b 1–5” = Exod 5:9–14, DSS F. 114; “4QDeut f (4Q33) frg. 12a 1–3” = Deut 19:13–15, no DSS F. number; “4QJerc (4Q72) frg. 21a 1–3” =Jer 24:6–7, no DSS F.–number; “11QPsc (11Q7) frg. 3a–b” = Ps 11:1–4, DSS F.199; “4QInstruction (4Q416 frg. 23 1–2)” = Fragment with words from Instruction (4Q418) ii 4–5, DSS F.202]
Reed, Stephen A. “Find-Sites of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” DSD 14: 199–221.
→ p. 204: “New fragments belonging to private collectors were published recently by Ester Eshel and Hanan Eshel. … Concerning the new Enoch papyrus [=DSS F.125]…. They give no evidence for the origin at Qumran.”
Eshel, Esther, Hanan Eshel, and Magen Broshi. “A New Fragment of XJudges.” DSD 14: 354–57.
[XJudg frg. 7 = Judg 4:6–8, no DSS F.-number]
Charlesworth, James H. “35 Scrolls Still in Private Hands.” BAR 33.5: 60–63.
→ p. 62: “As long as 10 years ago I knew of more than 35 Dead Sea Scrolls that are still in private hands, purchased decades earlier. I published two of them in Discoveries in the Judaean Desert and will soon announce the recovery of a fragment of Genesis.”
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature: Revised and Expanded Edition. Grand Rapids, MI/Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans.
[“4Q6 (4QGenf) frg. 1a” = Gen 33:19–34:2, no DSS F.-number (p. 29); “4Q56 (4QIsab ) frg. 16a” = Isa 24:16–17, no DSS F.-number (p. 36); “4Q56 (4QIsab) frg. 20a” = Isa 26:19–27:1, no DSS F.-number (p. 36); “4Q226 (4QpsJubb) frg. 6a” = Words from Genesis 22, no DSS F.–number (p. 56); “8Q1 (8QGen) frg. 1a” = Gen 13:1–3, no DSS F.-number (p. 109); “XQ8 (XQpapEn)” = 1En. 8:4–9:3, DSS F.125 (p. 116–17)]
Hallermayer, Michaela. Text und Überlieferung des Buches Tobit. Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Studies 3. Berlin: de Gruyter.
→ Pp. 86–87: full edition of “Schøyen Ms. 5234: Tob 14,3-5” = Tob 14:2–3, DSS F.123. The fragment is also mentioned on pp. 173, 183 and a few other places.
Langlois, Michael. Le premier manuscrit du Livre d’Hénoch: Étude épigraphique et philologique des fragments araméens de 4Q201 à Qumrân. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 55–56.
[1 En. 8:4–9:3, DSS. F.125]
Langlois, Michael. “Livre d’Hénoch (XQpapEnochar).” Pages 93–95 in vol. 1 of La Bibliothèque de Qumrân. Edited by Kate Berthelot, Thierry Legrand and André Paul. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
[=1 En. 8:4–9:3, DSS. F.125]
Charlesworth, James H. “Announcing a Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Nehemiah.” Institute for Judaism and Christian Origins, 20(?) July.
[= Neh 3:14–15, DSS F.122]
Charlesworth, James H. “An Unknown Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Deuteronomy.” Institute for Judaism and Christian Origins, July/August.
[= Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Charlesworth, James H. “Updated November 2009: An Unknown Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Deuteronomy.” Institute for Judaism and Christian Origins, November 2009.
Charlesworth, James H. “An Unknown Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Dueteronomy [sic] XXVII 4–6.” The Samaritan News 1019-1020 [8 August]: 64–68.
[= Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
→ Pages 67–64 [in that sequence] contain several posts about the fragment published on Jim Davila’s blog and an open letter(?) from Benyamim Tsedaka to Davila.
→ “I think the 7th International Congress of Samaritan Studies took place this year in Papa, Hungary was successful … and the new discovery from Qumran of Deut. 27:4-6, just added to the conference. … [Ursula] Schattner-Rieser that lectured on Pre-Samaritan traditions among the DSS was forced to skip a half of her lecture due to the new discovery and admitted that she is confused. … Prof. emeritus Abraham Tal … has commented excitedly to the discovery by saying in general: We have to find out who really were the men of Qumran. The finding is awesome and should lead the scholars to pay lots of thoughts to explain it” (Tsedaka, 64).
→ “I conclude my words by a suggestion to the family of scholars of the MT and SP to try to go out of their conception due to the new exciting discovery. I know it is hard to adopt a new way of thinking but it is time to admit that the new discovery fills the passel of seeing the tradition of Mount Gerizim as the Chosen Place as the original one as well as Bachar, the form we have found in some translations of the SeptuAginta” (Tsedaka, 64).
Fields, Weston W. Dead Sea Scrolls: A Full History. Leiden: Brill, 157:
Much of the public has assumed right down through the years that funding for the publication and preservation of such an important set of documents [the Dead Sea Scrolls], of so much interest to so many people throughout the world, would more or less ‘fall down from the sky.’ It has never been so…. In fact, as I write this there are as many as 16 Hebrew biblical fragments and one fragment of Enoch languishing in a vault in Switzerland, 140 Greek fragments in Jerusalem, and a large fragment of Genesis elsewhere, for whose purchase I have not been able to get one penny despite four years of work, scores of letters and meetings, and hundreds of dollars’ worth of phone calls.
Lange, Armin. Handbuch der Textfunde vom Totem Meer. Vol. 1 of Die Handschriften biblischer Bücher von Qumran und den anderen Fundorten. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
[“4QGenf (4Q6) frg. 1a” = Gen 33:19–34:2, no DSS F.-number (47)]
[“8QGen (8Q1) frg. 1a” = Gen 13:1–3, no DSS F.-number (54)]
[“4QExodc (4Q14) frg 1a-b = Exod 3:13–15, DSS F.103, and Exod 5:9–14, DSS F.104 (59–60)]
[“XDtn?” = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154 (106)]
[“XNeh” = Neh 3:14–15, DSS F.122; “Die Handschrift [ist] in einer herodianischen Formalschrift gehalten …” (523–24)]
Biondi, Lee. From the Dead Sea Scrolls to the Bible in America: A Brief History of the Bible From Antiquity to Modern America: Told Through Ancient Manuscripts and Early European and American Printed Bibles. Camarillo: Legacy Ministries International.
[“A Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Exodus” = Exod 5:9–14, DSS F.104; “A Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Exodus” = Exod 17:5–6, DSS F.192; “Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment with text of Deuteronomy 27:4b-6” = DSS F.154; “Nehemiah Fragment” = Neh 3:14–15, DSS F. 122; “Dead Sea Scroll Fragment of Psalm 11” = Ps 11:1–4, DSS F.199; “Fragment from the Dead Sea Scroll Wisdom Text 4Q418 (4QInstruction)” = Fragment with words from Instruction (4Q418) ii 4–5, DSS F.202]
Charlesworth, James H. “What Is a Variant? Announcing a Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Deuteronomy.” Maarav 16: 201–12.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Lange, Armin. “‘They Confirmed the Reading’ (Y. Ta’an. 4.68a).” Pages 29–80 in From Qumran to Aleppo: A Discussion with Emanuel Tov about the Textual History of Jewish Scriptures in Honor of His 65th Birthday. FRLANT 230. Edited by Armin Lange, Matthias Weigold and Jószef Zsengellér. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
→ See p. 46 n.66: “A closer examination of the fragment reveals paleographic inconsistencies which question its authenticity. Furthermore, I wonder why a copy of the Samaritan Pentateuch would have been written in square script and not in paleo-Hebrew as is the Samaritan fragment from the Masada (Mas1o). It seems quite possible that the fragment posted by Charlesworth is a forgery.”
“Ink & Blood: The Museum Exhibit of the Bible. Official Commemorative DVD presentation.” Ink & Blood. DVD.
Qimron, Elisha. “מגילת המקדש [The Temple Scroll].” Pages 137–207 in Vol. 1 of
מגילת מדבר יהודה: החיבורים העבריים [The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew
Writings]. Jerusalem: Yad Ben-Zvi.
→ Pp. 137, 194–95
Tov, Emanuel. Revised Lists of the Texts from the Judaean Desert. Leiden and Boston: Brill.
→ P. 2: “For many of these fragments [for the most part post-2002 frgs], the information available is vague and may even prove to be incorrect….” Cf also note 8: “We are following a cautious approach in the nomenclature of these new fragments since their provenance is often unclear, naming most of them ‘X’. Although it may be claimed that many of the earlier identifications of fragments as ‘4Q’ are equally uncertain, the provenance of the fragments that have surfaced since 2000 is even more nebulous.”
→ Pp. 109–10: Lists over 20 post-2002 frgs (X9–X29**) in the table “19. Unknown Provenance”.
→ Virtually all the unprovenanced fragments published by Esther and Hanan Eshel in 2005 and 2007 (“New Fragments from Qumran: 4QGenf, 4QIsab, 4Q226, 8QGen, and XQpapEnoch,” DSD 12 : 134–57; “A Preliminary Report on Seven New Fragments from Qumran,” Meghillot 5–6 : 271–78) are listed as frgs belonging to known manuscripts from Cave 4, Cave 8, and Cave 11 respectively: Gen 13:1–3 is listed as 8Q1 frg. 1a 1–3 (p. 69); Words from Genesis 22 as 4Q226 frg. 6a 1–4 (p. 37); Gen 33:19–34:2 as 4Q6 frg. 1a 1–3 (p. 22); Deut 19:13–15 as 4Q33 frg. 12a 1–3 (p. 25); Ps 11:1–4 (DSS F.199) as 11Q7 frg. 3a (p. 69); Isa 24:16–17 as 4Q56 frg. 16a 1–2 (p. 28); Isa 26:19–27:1 as 4Q56 frg. 20a 1–5 (p. 28); Jer 24:6–7 (DSS F.156) as 4Q72 frg. 21a 1–3 (p. 29), and Fragment of Instruction (DSS F.202) as 4Q416 frg. 23 (p. 50). Concerning Exod 3:13–15 (DSS F.103); Exod 5:9–14 (DSS F. 104), and 1 En. 8:4–9:3 (DSS F.125), see below.
→ A substantial part of the post-2002 frgs from the Schøyen Collection are listed as frgs of Cave 1 and Cave 4 manuscripts from Qumran: Exod 3:13–15 (DSS F.103), Exod 5:9–14 (DSS F. 104), and Exod 16:10 (DSS F.105) are listed as three frgs of 4Q14 (p. 23); Deut 6:1–2 (DSS F.108) as 4Q38 frg. 1a (p. 25); 2 Sam 20:22–24 (DSS F.114) as 1Q7 frg. 7a (p. 6); Ps 9:10, 12–13 (DSS F.118) as 4Q98 frg. 2 (p. 31); Tob 14:3–4 (DSS F.123) as a frg. of 4Q196 (p. 35); 1 En. 7:1–5 (DSS F.124) as possibly a frg. of 4Q203 (p. 37), and 1 En. 8:4–9:3 (DSS F.125) as X26 (XpapEna; p. 110).
Yarchin, William. “Treasures of the Bible: The Dead Sea Scrolls and Beyond.” Azusa: Azusa Pacific University Darling Library.
Eshel, Hanan. “Gleaning of Scrolls from the Judean Desert.” Pages 49–87 in The Dead Sea Scrolls: Texts and Context. Edited by Charlotte Hempel. STDJ 90. Leiden: Brill.
→ Brief review of the fragments published in Eshel & Eshel 2005, Eshel & Eshel 2007, and Eshel, Baruchi, and Porat 2006, see above.
[Mention of the following post-2002 frgs from the Schøyen collection: “a fragment of a Psalm scroll” = Ps 9:10, 12–13, DSS F.118; “a papyrus scroll containing an Aramaic version of the book of Tobit, derived from one of· the scrolls from Cave 4 (4Q196=4QpapTobita ar), with parts of Tobit 14:3–4” = Tob 14:2–3, DSS F.123]
Eshel, Hanan. “The Culprit – the Vulture.” Haaretz, April 9 [Hebrew].
[= Num 16:2–5, DSS F.107; H.E. suggests here that Num 16:2–5 should be identified with 34Seiyal Numeri]
Flint, Peter W. “The Significance of the Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls.” Southwestern Journal of Theology 53 (fall): 15–25 (see esp. pp. 16–19).
Legrand, Thierry. “Pseudo-Jubilésb (4Qpseudo-Jubileesb).” Pages 170–77 in vol. 2 of La Bibliothèque de Qumrân. Edited by Kate Berthelot and Thierry Legrand. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
[= Words from Genesis 22/”Genesis Midrash”]
Charlesworth, James H. “What is a Variant? Announcing a Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Deuteronomy.” Updated March 2010, cf. Charlesworth 2009.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Charlesworth, James H. “Jeremiah 48:29-31a [Provisional Research Report].” May.
[ = DSS F.156]
Puech, Emile. “Un nouveau fragment 7a de 4QGn-Exa = 4QGen-Ex 1 et quelques nouvelles lectures et identifications du manuscrit 4Q1.” RevQ 25/97: 103–11.
[ = Gen 37:8, DSS F.102]
Tov, Emanuel. “Some Thoughts at the Close of the Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Publication Project.” Pages 3–13 in The Dead Sea Scrolls and Contemporary Culture : Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (July 6-8, 2008). Edited by Shani Tzoref, Lawrence H. Schiffman, and Adolfo D. Roitman. STDJ 93. Leiden: Brill. See p. 4:
The frequent appearance on the market of new scroll fragments … put into question the nature of our undertaking. The surfacing of these approximately forty fragments could not have been predicted in 1990, and accordingly they were not part of our original assignment. We published a few of these recently surfaced fragments in the final DJD volumes, but we could not wait for the remainder to be analyzed. In some cases, we merely know of the existence of a fragment, while in other cases photographs are known; in all cases one has to wait until the fragments have landed at a place where scholars have access to them. Most of these fragments are rather minute, while a few are substantial in size. The floating around, so to speak, of these fragments has created the impression that the publication of the scrolls has yet to be completed. However, we would probably have to wait another three to four years for a sufficient number of fragments to be ready to justify a book-size publication.
Armour. Much Clean Paper for Little Dirty Paper: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Texas Musâwama. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
[“The Exodus fragment (23:8–10)” = DSS F.161; “the Leviticus 18:27–29 fragment” = Lev 18:28–30, DSS F.162; “Deuteronomy 9:25–10:1” = DSS F.163; “the Deuteronomy 12:11–14 fragment” = DSS F.164; “a fragment with portions of Psalm 22:4–13” = Ps 22:4, 6–9, 11–13, DSS F.165; “Daniel 6:22–24 (which was later discovered to include Daniel 7:18–19)” = DSS F.166 and DSS F.167; “the Loveless fragment” = unknown, DDS F.168]
[Picture of the “butterfly fragment” = Gen 37:26–38(?), no DSS F.-number]
Carroll, Scott. Passages: 400th Anniversary of the King James Bible. Oklahoma: Passages.
[“Genesis 32:3–7c” = Gen 31:23–25?, 32:3–6, DSS F.191]
Loveless, Gary and Stephanie (?). Dead Sea Scrolls and The Bible: Ancient Artifacts, Timeless Treasures: Exhibition Catalogue. Forth Worth, Texas: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
[“Genesis 33:18–34:3” = Gen 33:18–34:2, no DSS F.-number; “Large Genesis Fragment, Genesis 37:26–38” = no DSS F.-number; “Exodus 23:8–10, FrgDSSExod2” = DSS F.161; “Leviticus 18:28–30; 20:24, FrgDSSLev2” = Lev 20:24; 18:28–30, DSS F.162; “Deuteronomy 9:25–10:1, FrgDSSDeut3 = DSS F.163; “Deuteronomy 12:11–14, FrgDSSDeut4” = DSS F.164; “Kings 13:20–22” = DSS F.170; “Psalm 22:3, 5–8, 10, 12, FrgDSSPs1 = Ps 22:4, 6–9, 11–13, DSS F.165; “Isaiah 28:23–29” = no DSS F.-number; “Amos 7:17–8:1” = DDS F.181; “Joel 4:9–10 (3:9–10 Eng.)” = no DSS F.-number; “Daniel 6:22–24; 7:18–19, FrgDSSDan2 / FrgDSSDan3” = DSS F.166 and DSS F.167; “The Loveless Fragment, FrgDSSText1” = unknown, DSS F.168]
Nihan, Christophe. “Garizim et Ébal dans le Pentateuque: Quelques remarques en marge de la publication d’un nouveau fragment du Deutéronome.” Semitica 54: 185–210.
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Notes on the Three Qumran-Type Yadin Fragments Leading to a Discussion of Identification, Attribution, Provenance, and Names.” DSD 19: 198–214. See esp. pp. 212–13.
→ Short discussion of four of the fragments published by Eshel and Eshel in 2005 and their (wrong) identifications: “4QGenf (4Q6)” = Gen 33:19–34:2 (no DSS F.-number); “4QIsab (4Q56)” x 2 = Isa 24:16–17 (no DSS F.-number) and Isa 26:19–27:1 (no DSS F.-number); “8QGen (8Q1)” = Gen 13:1–3 (no DSS F.-number).
→ Note the description of the handwriting in the two Isaiah frgs and the Gen 33-34 frg respectively: “The DSD fragments [Isaiah] … are a pastiche of different forms of the letters, as if they were copied by an inexperienced hand from different samples” (p. 212, n.47); “[T]he writing and spacing of the DSD fragment [Genesis] is uneven, as written by an inexperienced scribe” (pp. 212–213, n.48).
Books and book chapters
Charlesworth, James H. “What Is the Samaritan Pentateuch?” Pages xv–xx in The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah: The First English Translation Compared with the Masoretic Version. Edited by Benyamim Tsedaka and Sharon Sullivan (coed.). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans (xviii–xix).
[Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Tsedaka, Benyamim. “The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah.” Pages xxi–xxxvi in The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah: The First English Translation Compared with the Masoretic Version. Edited by Benyamim Tsedaka and Sharon Sullivan (coed.). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans (xxv).
[Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
→ Cf. xxv: “[A]n incredible discovery that should be examined carefully. The fragment has been … found to be authentic.”
Flint, Peter. The Dead Sea Scrolls. Core Biblical Studies. Nashville: Abingdon, 9–10.
→ Overview of the “Dead Sea Scrolls” frgs purchased by the Schøyen Collection (“40 Dead Sea Scrolls”; “2000–2005” [sic!]), Azusa Pacific University (“five fragments”; “2009”), Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (five fragments; “2010”), and the Green Collection (“12 scrolls”; “2011”)
Qimron, Elisha. The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew Writings. Volume Two. Jerusalem, 174.
[“4Q416 frg. 23” = Fragment with words from Instruction (4Q418 ii 4–5), DSS F.202]
Schattner-Rieser, Ursula. “Fragment du Deutéronome de type ‘ samaritain ’ (XDeut?).” Pages 127–28 in Torah. Deutéronome et Pentateuque dans son ensemle. Édition et traduction des manuscrits hébreux araméens et grecs. Edited by Katell Berthelot, Michaël Langlois and Thierry Legrand. Vol. 1 of La bibliothèque de Qumran 3a. Paris: Cerf.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Langlois, Michael. “Un manuscrit araméen inédit du livre d’Hénoch et les versions anciennes de 1 Hénoch 7,4.” Semitica 55: 101–16.
[“MS 4612/8, 1 Hénoch 7,4” = DSS F.124 (1 En. 7:1–5)]
Qimron, Elisha. The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew Writings. Vol. 3. Jerusalem: Yad Ben-Zvi, 248.
Edition of “XQAqeda” = Words from Genesis 22 / “Genesis Midrash”
Flint, Peter W. “Unrolling the Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls.” Pages 229–50 in The Oxford Handbook of the Psalms. Edited by William P. Brown. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 238–39.
[Basically reproduces the overview in Flint 2013, see above, with some additional information on “Ps 9:8–13, XQPs A” = DSS F.118 (Ps 9:10, 12–13); Ps 11:1–4, “XQPs C” = DSS F.199, and “Ps 22:4–13, XQPs B” = DSS F.165 (Ps 22:4, 6–9, 11–13)].
Tov, Emanuel. “New Fragments of Amos.” DSD 21: 3–13.
[ = Amos 7:17–8:1, DSS F.181]
Ulrich, Eugene. The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Developmental Composition of the Bible. VTSup 169. Leiden: Brill.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Is it genuine or a forgery? In particular, it is suspicious that בהרגרזים appears prominently and clearly in the center of this very small fragment with so few other words. That suspicion, however, is countered by the solitary fragment of 4QJudga, only slightly larger, which also clearly shows a highly significant variant …. That small fragment has text from the Gideon story in Judges 6: vv. 3, 4, 5, 6 followed immediately by vv. 11, 12, 13. That is, it preserves an early, short text, without the theological insertion of vv. 7-10 added in the MT. Thus, that small Judges fragment provides an important witness to an earlier version of its narrative, just as the new Deuteronomy fragment would provide an important witness to an alternate and possibly earlier version of Deuteronomy 27. The authenticity of 4QJudga, if not definitely proving the authenticity of this newly surfaced fragment, does seriously counter the suspicion of inauthenticity due to its prominent important reading (p. 57).
Charlesworth, James H. “An Unknown Dead Sea Scroll and Speculations Focused on the Vorlage of Deuteronomy 27:4.” Pages 393–414 in Jesus, Paulus und die Texte von Qumran. Edited by Jörg Frey & Enno Edzard Popkins. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
[ = Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154]
Elgvin, Torleif. “Nye perspektiver på dødehavstekster [New Perspectives on Dead Sea Texts].” Teologisk Tidsskrift 5: 118–32.
Elgvin, Torleif, Kipp Davis, and Michael Langlois, eds. Gleanings from the Caves: Dead Sea Scrolls and Artefacts from The Schøyen Collection. LTST 71. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark [July].
Henzel, Benedikt. Juda und Samaria. FAT 110. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016, p. 177.
→ Deut 27:4–6, DSS F.154
→ “Das Fragment is höchst wahrscheinlich echt.”
Tov, Emanuel, Kipp Davis, and Robert Duke, eds. Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection. Publications of Museum of the Bible 1. Leiden: Brill [August]. Retracted 5 August 2020, but freely available for download.
Charlesworth, James H. “The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha—Thirty Years Later.” Pages 3–22 in New Vistas on Early Judaism and Christianity. Edited by Lorenzo DiTommaso and Gerbern S. Oegema. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark.
→ P. 9: “From Cave II, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X we have … thousands of fragments; some are still in the hands of the Arabs.”
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “A Provisional List of Unprovenanced, Twenty-First Century, Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments.” Version 1.0. Posted on Academia 11 April [no longer accessible]. Version 2.1 [30 October].
Justnes, Årstein. “A List of 73 Unprovenanced, Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments That Have Surfaced After 2002.” Introduction to the Lying Pen of Scribes Conference at the University of Agder, 13–15 April. Posted on Academia, 4 August.
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Gleanings from the Caves? Really? On the likelihood of Dead Sea Scrolls forgeries in The Schøyen Collection.” Posted on Academia, 14 August.
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls Fishy Fragments — or Forgeries?” Posted on Academia, 20(?) August.
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “A Provisional List of Unprovenanced, Twenty-First Century, Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments (version 2; September 18, 2016).” Posted on Academia in September [no longer accessible].
Davis, Kipp. “Gleanings from the Cave of Wonders? Patterns of Correspondence in the Post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments.” Posted on Academia, 20 September [no longer accessible].
Justnes, Årstein. “A List of 70 Unprovenanced, Post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments.” Lyingpen.com, 11 August.
Justnes, Årstein. “Post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments: Number of Lines and Measurements [preliminary list].” Lyingpen.com, 12 August.
Justnes, Årstein and Ludvik A. Kjeldsberg. “The Post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments: A Tentative Timeline of Acquisitions.” Lyingpen.com, 20 December.
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Dittography and Copying Lines in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Considering George Brooke’s Proposal about 1QpHab 7:1–2.” Pages 293–307 in Is There a Text in This Cave? Studies in the Textuality of Dead Sea Scrolls in Honour of George J. Brooke. Edited by Ariel Feldman, Maria Cioatǎ, and Charlotte Hempel. STDJ 119. Leiden: Brill.
→ P. 297: “A remarkable correspondence is found between 4Q30 5 lines 3–5 and 7, and DSS.F133 (APU 3) lines 2–4 and 6 …” Footnote 14: “Note that the similar shape of the fragments and the identical textual variants strongly suggest a direct dependency between the fragments. I surmise that DSS.F133 (APU 3) is a modern forgery, imitating 4Q30 5, even up to a similarity of the shapes of some letters.”
Journal Articles and Reviews
Justnes, Årstein. «Forfalskninger av dødehavsruller: Om mer enn 70 nye fragmenter – og historien om ett av dem (DSS F.154; 5 Mos 27,4–6) [Faking the Dead Sea Scrolls: On More than 70 New Fragments – and the Story about One of Them (DSS F.154; Deut 27:4–6)]». Teologisk Tidsskrift 6.1: 70–83.
Puech, Émile. Review of Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection, edited by Emanuel Tov, Kipp Davis, and Robert Duke. RevQ 29: 153–56.
Johnson, Michael B. “A Case Study in Professional Ethics Concerning Secondary Publications of Unprovenanced Artefacts: The New Edition DSS F.Instruction1.” Distant Worlds Journal 2: 28–42.
[= Fragment with words from Instruction (4Q418) ii 4–5, DSS F.202]
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “A Provisional List of Unprovenanced, Twenty-First Century, Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments.” DSD 24:
Davis, Kipp, Ira Rabin, Ines Feldman, Myriam Krutzsch, Hasia Rimon, Årstein Justnes, Torleif Elgvin, and Michael Langlois. “Nine Dubious ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ Fragments from the Twenty-First Century.” DSD 24: .
[This article deals with nine fragments from the Schøyen Collection: DSS F.103 (Exod 3:13–15), DSS F.104 (Exod 5:9–14), DSS F.105 (Exod 16:10), DSS F.112 (1 Sam 2:11–14), DSS F.122 (Neh 3:14–15), DSS F.123 (Tob 14:3–4), DSS F.124 (1 En. 7:1–5), DSS F.125 (1 En. 8:4–9:3), and DSS F.126 (1 En. 106:19–107:1)]
Davis, Kipp. “Caves of Dispute: Patterns of Correspondence and Suspicion in the Post-2002 ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ Fragments.” DSD 24:
Zahn, Molly M. Review of Gleanings from the Caves: Dead Sea Scrolls and Artefacts from the Schøyen Collection, written by Torleif Elgvin, Kipp Davis, and Michael Langlois. DSD 24: 307–9.
Justnes, Årstein. Review of Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection, written by Emanuel Tov, Kipp Davis, and Robert Duke. DSD 24: 310–12 [Academia version].
Tigchelaar, Eibert. Review of Gleanings from the Caves: Dead Sea Scrolls and Artefacts from the Schøyen Collection, edited by Torleif Elgvin, with associate editors Kipp Davis and Michael Langlois. RevQ 29(?).
Davis, Kipp. “Memories of Amalek (4Q252 4:1–3): The Imprecatory Function of the Edomite Genealogy in the Dead Sea Scrolls.” Pages Academia version].
[With an edition and a discussion of DSS F.101 (Gen 36:7–16)]
Justnes, Årstein. “The Post-2002 DSS-like Fragments: A Price List.” Lyingpen.com, 17 August.
Davis, Kipp. “Dead Sea Scrolls Papyri: Scribal Features and Questions of Authenticity.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the SBL. Boston, MA, 18 November.
Atkinson, Kenneth. The Hasmoneans and Their Neighbors: New Historical Reconstructions from the Dead Sea Scrolls and Classical Sources. Jewish and Christian Texts in Contexts and Related Studies 27. London: T&T Clark, 12–13:
Many of the fragments from the Judean Desert that have appeared during the last fifteen years … are of uncertain provenance although they are commonly labelled as from Cave 4. Only one of these (MS 5439/1, 4Q4364 [typo for 4Q364] 8a) has been identified with a previously published Cave 4 manuscript, while the letter forms and scribal hands of the others are different than the majority of documents that came from this cave. This suggest that the Bedouin had discovered an unknown cave containing Dead Sea Scrolls.
Justnes, Årstein and Torleif Elgvin. “A Private Part of Enoch: A Forged Fragment of 1 Enoch 8:4–9:3.” Pages 195–203 in Wisdom Poured Out Like Water: Studies on Jewish and Christian Antiquity in Honor of Gabriele Boccaccini. Edited by J. Harold Ellens, Isaac W. Oliver, Jason von Ehrenkrook, James Waddel and Jason M. Zurawski. DCLS 38. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter.
[= DSS F.125]
Jacobs, Sandra. Review of Gleanings from the Caves: Dead Sea Scrolls and Artefacts from the Schøyen Collection, edited by Torleif Elgvin, Kipp Davis, and Michael Langlois. STRATA: Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society 36 (2018): 136–38.
Elgvin, Torleif. «Dødehavsrullene [The Dead Sea Scrolls]». Store norske leksikon.
[See the last paragraph “Moderne forfalskninger (Modern Forgeries)”]
Kjeldsberg, Ludvik A. «Forfalskede Relikvier? Aktører innenfor det amerikanske kristne høyres bruk av ‘Dødehavsruller’ [Fake Relics? The American Christian Right and the post-2002 Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments]». M.A. diss., University of Agder.
Gimse, Ingrid B. “Ancient or Modern? : an Analysis of Layout and Variant Readings in Unprovenanced Post-2002 ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ Fragments.” M.A. diss., MF Norwegian School of Theology, Religion and Society. Cf. also «Dødehavsrullfragmenter eller moderne forfalskninger?» Ung Teologi 52 (2019): 33–42.
Davis, Kipp. “Gleanings from the Cave of Wonders? Fragments, Forgeries, and ‘Biblicism’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls,” in Origin Stories: A Forum on the “Discovery” and Interpretation of First-Millennium Manuscripts. Edited by Jennifer Barry and Eva Mroczek. Marginalia, 22 June.
Barry, Jennifer and Eva Mroczek. “Origins Forum: Discovery and Interpretation of First-Millennium Manuscripts,” in Origin Stories: A Forum on the “Discovery” and Interpretation of First-Millennium Manuscripts. Edited by Jennifer Barry and Eva Mroczek. Marginalia, 22 June.
Justnes, Årstein. “Fragments for Sale: Dead Sea Scrolls,” in Origin Stories: A Forum on the “Discovery” and Interpretation of First-Millennium Manuscripts. Edited by Jennifer Barry and Eva Mroczek. Marginalia, 22 June.
Mroczek, Eva. “Batshit Stories: New Tales of Discovering Ancient Texts,” in Origin Stories: A Forum on the “Discovery” and Interpretation of First-Millennium Manuscripts. Edited by Jennifer Barry and Eva Mroczek. Marginalia, 22 June.
Drawnel, Henryk. Qumran Cave 4: The Aramaic Books of Enoch: 4Q201, 4Q202, 4Q204, 4Q205, 4Q206, 4Q207, 4Q212. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 5–6.
[Briefly discusses the three Enoch fragments in the Schøyen Collection: DSS F.124 (1 En. 7:1–5), DSS F.125 (1 En. 8:4–9:3), and DSS F.126 (1 En. 106:19–107: 1)]
Justnes, Årstein. De falske fragmentene og forskerne som gjorde dem til dødehavsruller [The fake fragments and the scholars who turned them into Dead Sea Scrolls]. Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk.
Mack, Marav and Benjamin Balint. Jerusalem: City of the Book. Yale University Press.
We met with WiIliam, youngest of Khalil (Kando) Shahin’s five sons, at the shop he inherited from his late father near the Albright Institute in East Jerusalem. He greeted us with an impassive expression. He seemed almost mistrustful of us; if we had hoped to find him eager to show off his most prized possessions, we were disappointed. … William at first cagily refused even to acknowledge that he owned fragments of the scrolls. When pressed, he said that he did have some but would disclose nothing of their whereabouts, their contents, or the price he was asking for them (p. 34).
Charlesworth, James H. “Memories of the Society of Biblical Literature: Pseudepigrapha Group, 1970–1982.” Pages 79–94 in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Fifty Years of the Pseudepigrapha Section at the SBL. Edited by Matthias Henze and Liv Ingeborg Lied. EJL 50. Atlanta: SBL.
→“Because of my work with the Holy Council in Saint Catherine’s Monastery and the discovery of over three hundred ancient uncials, I was invited to serve on the American Schools of Oriental Research Ancient Manuscript Committee. Discussions on the pseudepigrapha took on wider dimensions, as confidentially we shared knowledge about over thirty scrolls—perhaps two full scrolls—taken eastward from the Qumran Caves. Obviously, these discussions have been and continue to be secret in the hope of our search may prove fruitful (p. 91).”
Debel, Hans. “Discoveries.” Pages 7–16 in T&T Clark Companion to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Edited by George J. Brooke and Charlotte Hempel with the assistance of Michael DeVries and Drew Longacre. London and New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark. See esp. pp. 15–16.
→“Although the example … should warn us not to put on a prophetic mantle by excluding the possibility of new discoveries in the Judean Desert, it seems likely that any major progress is first to be expected from fragments in private hands, some of which are said to be safely locked up in a vault in Switzerland …” (p. 16).
Kjeldsberg, Ludvik A. “Christian Dead Sea Scrolls? The Post-2002 Fragments as Modern Protestant Relics.” Pages 207–18 in Museum of the Bible: A Critical Introduction. Edited
Justnes, Årstein. “Fake Fragments, Flexible Provenances: Eight Aramaic ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ from the 21st Century.” Pages 242–72 in Vision, Narrative, and Wisdom in the Aramaic Texts from Qumran. Edited by Mette Bundvad and Kasper Siegismund. STDJ 131. Leiden/Boston: Brill.
Langlois, Michael. “The Book of Jeremiah’s Redaction History in Light of Its Oldest Manuscripts.” Pages 9–31 in Jeremiah in History and Tradition. Edited by Jim West and Niels Peter Lemche. Copenhagen International Seminar. New York: Routledge, 2019. See esp. pp. 21–24.
[DSS F.116 (Jer 3:15–19), DSS F.195 (Jer 23:6–9), and DSS F.156 (Jer 24:6–7 [Eshel & Eshel] or Jer 48:29–31a [Charlesworth])]
→ “In my opinion, there are only five manuscripts of Jeremiah, and not ten: four (MS 4612/9, MOTB.SCR.003172, and DSS F.156 published twice) are modern forgeries, and one (4Q72a) actually belongs to another scroll (4Q71). The Book of Jeremiah suddenly loses half of its scrolls, which is quite a hard fall in the polls” (p. 23).
Mizzi, Dennis, and Jodi Magness. “Provenance vs. Authenticity: An Archaeological Perspective on the Post-2002 ‘Dead Sea Scrolls-Like’ Fragments.” DSD 26: 135–69.
→ From the abstract: “[A]ny artifact that lacks verifiable documentation of its provenance—whether or not it is authentic—should not be studied or published by scholars. Finally, we urge professional organizations and publishers to establish or strengthen policies preventing the publication of such artifacts, even after primary publication or presentation elsewhere.”
→ P. 148: “[S]o far, no verifiable documentation has been made available—if it exists—to show that these fragments were indeed acquired and exported out of Israel either before 1970–73, in accordance with the terms of the UNESCO Convention, or before 1978, which is when the antiquities law in Israel was enacted. Herein lies the problem—everything we know about the recently surfaced ‘Dead Sea Scrolls-like’ fragments is based on mere hearsay or generic, unsubstantiated claims.”
Elgvin, Torleif, and Michael Langlois. “Looking Back: (More) Dead Sea Scrolls Forgeries in the Schøyen Collection.” RevQ 31: 111–33.
→ From the abstract: “This article updates, improves and corrects the 2016 publication of Dead Sea Scrolls fragments and artefacts in The Schøyen Collection. A large number of the fragments then published are here classified as modern forgeries. The palaeographical discussion is sharpened and suggests that most of the suspicious fragments in the collection were penned by the same modern forger.”
Tigchelaar, Eibert. “Identification of 4Q56 (4QIsab) Fragments.” RevQ 31: 275–81.
→ Pp. 280–81: Discussion of the two “Ink and Blood” fragments with text from Isa 24:16–17 and 26:19–27:1.
→ “[B]oth in general style of writing, and in the specific forms of letters, the writing of the two fragments is entirely different from that of 4Q56. Moreover, the style of writing found within these two fragments is dissimilar from another. If the fragments are authentic, they would come from two altogether different manuscripts. However, materially and palaeographically both fragments have many features common to those “post-2002” fragments that appear to be forgeries” (p. 281).
“Dead Sea Scroll Detectives: New technologies unravel the Dead Sea Scrolls’ mysteries and uncover million-dollar fakes.” PBS, 6 November.
→ With Joel Baden, John Collins, Kipp Davis, Steve Green, Oren Gutfeld, Matthias Henze, Jeffrey Kloha, Jodi Magness, Adolfo Roitman, Lawrence Schiffman, Brent Seales, Pnina Shor, John Strugnell, Tim Vetters, Lenny Wolfe
Art Fraud Insights, Museum of the Bible Dead Sea Scroll Collection: Scientific Research and Analysis: Final Report. November, 2019. Released 13(?) March
Qimron, Elisha. The Qumran Texts: Composite Edition. Zenodo, 2 April.
→ Pp. 249–50: Edition of “XQAqeda” = Words from Genesis 22 / “Genesis Midrash”
Bonnie, Rick, Matthew Goff, Jutta Jokiranta, Suzie Thomas, and Shani Tzoref. “Professional Ethics, Provenance, and Policies: A Survey of Dead Sea Scrolls Scholars.” DSD 27: 257–93.
Flint, Peter, and Scott Carroll. Ancient Texts: Exploring Ancient Manuscripts and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Unabridged). Koinonia House/Audible.com. Published 28 July.
Gimse, Ingrid Breilid. “The Post-2002 Fragments’ Dependency on Modern Editions of the Hebrew Bible.” RevQ 115: 57-77.
Kersel, Morag. “Redemption for the Museum of the Bible? Artifacts, provenance, the display of Dead Sea Scrolls, and bias in the contact zone.” Museum Management and Curatorship, 1–18. DOI: 10.1080/09647775.2021.1914144.
Schulze, Dietmar. “Fakes and Forgeries for Fame and Fortune.” BSB 20 (16 February): 100–12.
Hahn, Oliver, Ira Rabin, and Hasia Rimon. “Comments on the ‘Report Museum of the Bible Dead Sea Scroll Collection Scientific Research and Analysis’, C. Loll, Art Fraud Insights, November 2019.” 13 March.
Schiffman, Lawrence H. and Andrew D. Gross. The Temple Scroll: 11Q19, 11Q20, 11Q21, 4Q524, 5Q21 with 4Q365a and 4Q365 frag. 23. Dead Sea Scrolls Editions 1. Leiden: Brill.
→ See pp. 8, 158, and 162.
Lande, Dana Ryan. “Unreliable Vaults, Holy Disbelief: Narrative Ethics in Dead Sea Scrolls ‘News’.” Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture, Online Publication Date: 18 January.